The Mediterranean parrotfish (Sparisoma cretense) is a species of parrotfish found at depths up to 50 m (160 ft) along rocky shores in the Mediterranean and the eastern Atlantic, from Portugal south to Senegal. It is generally common, but uncommon or rare (locally even absent) in the northwestern Mediterranean and in the Adriatic Sea. It prefers relatively warm temperatures and there is an ongoing northward range expansion, probably because of global warming. The primary adult habitat is rocky reefs, especially in areas with macroalgae, but they may visit adjacent seagrass patches. Juveniles also occur more widely in the latter habitat.
In parts of its range it is a commercially important food fish. Although some populations have been affected by fishing pressure, it is not considered threatened. It has been studied in detail in parts of its range, including the Azores.