The family Phylliidae (often misspelled Phyllidae) contains the extant true leaf insects or walking leaves, which include some of the most remarkably camouflaged leaf mimics (mimesis) in the entire animal kingdom. They occur from South Asia through Southeast Asia to Australia. Earlier sources treat Phylliidae as a much larger taxon, containing genera in what are presently considered to be several different families.
Phyllium pulchrifolium or Gray’s leaf insect, is a leaf insect of the family Phylliidae native to tropical Asia as well as Madagascar, Mauritius and the Seychelles. It was first described by George Robert Gray in 1832, which was his first phasmid he discovered. Leaf insects have extremely flattened, irregularly shaped bodies, wings, and legs. They are usually about 5–10 cm long (2–4 in long). They are called leaf insects because their large, leathery forewings have veins that look similar to the veins on the particular type of leaves they inhabit. Its scientific name bioculatum means “two-eyed” and refers to the two dots located on the abdomen just in this species.